Relations between India and Pakistan
India and Pakistan Relationship
Relations between the two states have been defined by the violent partition of British India in 1947 which started the Kashmir conflict, and the numerous military conflicts fought between the two nations. Consequently, their relationship has been plagued by hostility and suspicion. They both share critical relationship.
Partition of British India
The partition of British India was the partition of Indian subcontinent.
Partition was based on two religions, Islam and hindunism.
British India was divided into two independent states, Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan.
The partition included the partition of East Pakistan ( Bangladesh) West Pakistan and India in the middle.
The partition included the geographical division of the Bengal province into East Bengal and West Bengal become the part of India.
Partition of Punjab province became West Punjab ( Pakistani Punjab) and East Punjab (Indian Punjab).
Massacre of Refuges
After the partition of British India large number of refugees moved from both countries (India and Pakistan)
Refugees were killed from both sides.
Approximately 4 million Hindus Moved from Pakistan to India and 5-6 million muslims moved from India TO Pakistan.
The groups of Sikhs and Jathas killed a large number of Muslim refugees.
To take revenge Muslim also killed large amount of Hindu refugees.
Kashmir dispute 1947-1948
- Kashmir Dispute was the major issue that have strained the relationship between India and Pakistan.
- Its majority population was muslim but its ruler, MahaRaja Hari Singh , was hindu.
- Ruler wanted Kashmir as an independent nation.
- Maha Raja was turned to India and asked it to send its troops to Kashmir.
- India launched and operation and captured large area of Kashmir.
- Fighting continues through the second half of 1948.
- The war officially ends on January 1,1949 , when the United Nation arranges a ceasefire.
- Pakistan controls roughly one –third of the state, reffering to it as Azad ( free) Jammu and Kashmir.
- In 1954 the accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India is ratified by the states of constituent assembly.
- In 1957 the Jammu and Kashmir constituent assembly approves a constitution.
Indus Water Treaty
- The treaty was signed in Karachi on September 19, 1960 by Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and President of Pakistan Mohammad Ayub Khan.
- The Indus System of Rivers comprises three westren Rivers the Indus, the Jhelum and Chenab and three Eastern Rivers- the Sutlej, the Beas and the Ravi.
- The treaty was the India would not interfere in flow of Indus water coming to Pakistan.
- India constructed dams against the Indus treaty on River, Indus , Jehlum and Chenab.
- India had constructed 41 dams . In these rivers and 12 were under construction.
Following the 1962 Sino-Indian war, the foreign ministers of India and Pakistan-Swaran Singh and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto- hold talks under the auspices of the British and Americans regarding the Kashmir dispute. The specific contents of those talks have not yet been declassified, but no agreement was reached.
Following the failure of 1963 talks, Pakistan refers the Kashmir case to the UN Security Council.
Indo-Pak 1965 War
The conflict begins after a clash between border patrols in April in the Rann of Kutch (in the Indian state of Gujarat)
On August 5, between 26,000 and33,000 Pakistani soldiers cross the ceasefire line dressed as Kashmiri locals, crossing into Indian- administered Kashmir .
Infantry amour and air forces units are involved in the conflict.
Indian troops cross the international border at Lahore on September 6.
The largest engagement of the war takes place in the Sialkot sector, where between 400 and 600 tanks square off in an inconclusive battle.
The war between both countries lasted for 17 days 9 ( 5 SEP TO 23 SEP)
Tashkent Agreement 1966
On January 10,1966 Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadaur Shastri and Pakistani President Ayub Khan sign an agreement at Tashkent ( now in Uzbekistan) , agreeing to withdraw to pre-August lines and that economic and diplomatic relations would be restored. A cease fire had been secured by the United Nations Security Council on Sep 22, 1965.
War of 1971
India and Pakistan go to the war a third time , this time over East Pakistan.
The conflict begins when the central Pakistani government in West Pakistan ,led by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, refuses to allow Awami League leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, a Bengali whose party won the majority of seats in the 1970 parliamentary elections, to assume the premiership.
A Pakistani militray crackdown on Dhaka begins in March.
India becomes involved in the conflict in December, after the Pakistan air forces launches a pre-emptive strike on airfields in India’s northwest.
India then launches a coordinated land air, and sea assault on East Pakistan.
The Pakistani army surrenders at Dhaka and its army of more than 90,000 become prisnors of war.
East Pakistan becomes the independent country of Bangladesh on December 6,1971.
Prime Ministers sign Simla Agreement 1972
Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi sign an agreement in the Indian town of Simla.
Both countries agree to put an end to the conflict and confrontation that have hitherto marred their relations and work for the promotions of a friendly and harmonious relationship and the establishment of a durable peace in the subcontinent . Both sites agree to settle any disputes by peaceful means.
The Simla Agreement designates the ceasefire line of December 17,1971 as being the new ”Line –of-Control” between two countries, which neither side to seek to alter unilaterally and which ”shall be respected by both sides without prejudice to the recognized position of either side.
The Kashmiri state government affirms that the state ” is a constituent unit of the Union of India”.
Pakistan rejects the accord with the Indian government.
On May 18, Indian detonates a nuclear device at Pokhran, in an operation code named ”Smiling Buddha”.
India refers to the device as a ”peaceful nuclear explosive”.
Agreement on Nuclear Installations (1988)
The two countries sign an agreement that neither side will attack the other’s nuclear installations or facilities.
These include ” nuclear power and research, fuel fabrication, uranium enrichment, isotopes separation and reprocessing facilities as well as any other installations with fresh or irradiated nuclear fuel and materials in any form and establishment storing significant quantities of radio- active materials.”
Both sides agree to share information on the latitudes and longitudes of all nuclear installations.
This agreement is later ratified and the two countries share information on January 1 each year since then.
Armed resistance to Indian rule in the Kashmir valley begins.
Muslim political parties, after accusing the state government of rigging the 1987 state legislative elections, form militant wings.
Pakistan says that it gives its ” moral and diplomatic” support to the movement , reiterating its call for the earlier UN-sponsored referendum.
India says that Pakistan is supporting the insurgency by providing weapons and training to fighters, terming attacks against it in Kashmir ” cross-border terrorism”. Pakistan denies this.
Militant groups taking part in the fight in Kasmir continue to emerge through the 1990s, in part fuelled by a large influx of ”mujahideen” who took part in the Afghan war against the Soviets in the 1980s.
uAgreement on Advance Notification of military exercise and movements (1991)
uThe two countries sign agreements on providing advance notification of military exercise , scheme and troop movement , as well as on preventing airspace violations and establishing overflight rules.
1992 – A joint declaration prohibiting the use of chemical weapons is signed in New Delhi
1996– Following a series of clashes , military offices from both countries meet at the LoC in order to ease tensions.
Nuclear Test Standoff 1998
Indian detonates five nuclear devices at Pokhran. Pakistan responds by detonating six nuclear devices of its own in the Chaghai Hills.
The test result in international sanction being placed on both countries.
uIn the same year, both countries carry out test of long- range missiles.
u1999 Kargil War
HOW IT STARTED
It was a common practice of the Indians and Pakistan Arym to vacate high altitude forward posts in winter.
Tb the winter of early 1999,Pakistan army along with the Mujahedeen reoccupied the forward positions and startegic peaks of Kargil , Dress and Batalik.
The cause of the conflict was the infiltration of Pakistani soldiers and Kashmiri militants into position on the Indian side of the LoC.
This came as a shock to the Indian Army when they realized the gravity of the situation. ” Operation Al-Badar” was the name given to Pakistan’s infiltration.
Main events Kargil War
In the sprng of 1999, on the orders of Pakistan Army Chief , General Perveex Musharaf Pakistani soilders climbed up the snow-bound passes and ocuupied some high positions.
From the Siachian Glacier. Pakistan was in a strong position to cut off supplies and winter dumping and thus force Indians to withdraw.
Indians ultimately complained to the International community and finally on pressure by USA , Pkistani Prime Minister , Nawaz Sharif , ordered the withdrawal of troops.
India used a large number of Artillery guns and also used their air force against Pakistani positon. Two Indian aircraft were also shot down by Stinger Missiles.
Point 5353 is the highest point in drass-Kargil area.
Point 5353 is still occupied by Pakistan, even 14 years after the battle. India has now given up the post as untenable.
Consequences of the War
Fall of government of Pakistan.
Pervaz Musharaf came in government.
Pakistan economy weakened by war.
Jehadi were not happy with Pakistan
Rising tension betwwwn political parties an army of Pakistan.
The threat of international isolation against Pakistan.
Pakistan failed to get support of international community during Kargil war and had to withdraw.
In July, Pakistani president Pervaiz Musharaf and Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee meet for two days in Agra. The summit collapse after two days with both sides unable to reach agreement on the core issue of Kashmir.
On december 13, an armed attack on the Indian parliament in new Delhi left 14 people dead.
Vajpayee and Musharaf hold direct talks at the 12th SAARC summit in Islamabad in January, and the two countries foreign secretaries meet later in the year.
November, on the eve of a visit a Jammu and Kashmir, the new Indian Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh, announces that India will be reducing its deployment of troops there.
Indian joins a framework agreement between Turkmenistan, Afghanistan and Pakistan on a $6.7bn gas pipeline project.
In July, India blames Pakistan`s Inter Services Intelligence (ISI) directorate for a bomb attack on the Indian Embassy in Kabul, which kills 58 and injuries another 141.
uIn September, Pakistan President Asif Ali Zardari and Indian Prime Minister Singh formally announce the opening of several trade routes between the two countries.
On November 26, Armed gunmen open fire on civilians, at several sites in Mumbai, India. More than 160 people are killed in the attacks.
Pakistan Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gilani and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh meet.
the Indian Government continues to take a stern line with Pakistan.
uIn August, India gives Pakistan a new dossier of evidence regarding the Mumbai attacks, asking it to prosecute Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, the head of Jamaat-ud-dawa, an Islamic Charity with ties to Lashkar-e-Taiba.
In January, India and Pakistan trade accusations of violating the cease fire in Kashmir, with Islamabad accusing Indian troops of a cross border raid that killed a soldier and India charging that Pakistani shelling destroyed a home on its side.
In September, the Prime Minister of India and Pakistan met in new york to end the tension between the armies of both sides in the disputed Kashmir.
On February 12, India and Pakistan agree to release trucks coming from across the de facto Line of Control for allegedly carrying brown sugar.
on May 1, Pakistan `s Army chief General Raheel Sharif calls Kashmir the “ jugular vein” of Pakistan.
on May 25, Pakistan releases 151 Indian fisherman from its jails.
on may 27, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi holds talks with Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in New Delhi.Both sides express willingness to begin new era of bilateral relations
In January, JeM terrorists disguised as soldiers, carry out a deadly attack on Pathankot airbase in Indian`s northwestern state of punjab.
On 29 September, India conducts ‘surgical strikes’ in response to the attack in Uri.
In May the Indian Army bombs Pakistani Army check posts in Nowshera along the LoC .
In July terrorists attack Hindu pilgrims in jammu and Kashmir and kill at least 7 and injuring 16 which is the worst attack since 2000.
In June, the UN office for the High Commissioner for Human Rights(OHCHR) issues the first ever UN report detailing human rights abuses in Kashmir titled “Report on the situation of human rights in Kashmir”.
On 14 February, 40 members of the Indian Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)are killed in a suicide bombing pulwama in Indian Administered Jammu and Kashmir.
On 19 February, the Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan expresses his willingness to negotiate and cooperate with India regarding the Pulwama attack on 14 february.
On 27 February the Indian Air Force shoots down the Pakistani F-16 fighter, while Pakistan downs two Indian Fighter Jets and captures one Indian pilot.
On 28 February Imran Khan released the captured Indian Air Force Pilot as a “peace gesture”.
In first week of April, India and Pakistan trade fire in the region of jammu and Kashmir leaving seven people dead.